RISC OS 3.7 User Guide
This tutorial section introduces Draw by helping you create the picture below. If necessary, remind yourself of general RISC OS ideas and terms before you start, by going back to your Welcome Guide.
The drawing above shows a six mile walk through the countryside, and is divided into four parts:
The following pages will take you step-by-step through the process of creating the above drawing, showing you how to draw a map compass, lake, roads, road scale, woods and rivers. You'll also learn how to drag text files (created by Edit) and sprites (created by Paint) into a Draw window.
If you do something by mistake while you're working through this tutorial, try pressing F8. This is a keyboard short-cut for the Misc/Undo option, and should undo your last operation. If you decide that you didn't want to undo something after all, just press F9 (Redo).
Before you start on the map, it's worth spending a short time practising how to select objects. This is important: before you can do anything to a Draw object - move it, for instance, or change its colour - you need to select it.
A Draw picture will typically contain lots of objects overlapping each other, and often one object will be completely behind another. Selecting just the object you want to alter needs a bit of skill.
Tutorials.DrawTutordirectory and double-click on the file called
Sign. Once this file is loaded it looks like this:
This drawing consists of three objects:
The toolbox is the strip of icons down the lefthand side of the Draw window - click on the arrow at the bottom of the toolbox and it will be highlighted.
When an object's bounding box extends beyond others, it's easy to select: as long as you click on that part of the object, it will be selected. When an object is in front of others (as the circle is), again you'll have no problem: click anywhere within it to select it.
However, it can be difficult to select an object that's 'underneath' other objects. You can often see many objects apparently occupying the same physical place, but in fact they're 'stacked' on top of one another.
For instance, clicking on the triangle will in fact select the circle, because the circle is in front of the triangle. To select the triangle, you need to double-click on it.
If you double-click many times, you'll 'tunnel down' through the objects that are stacked on top of each other, selecting each one in turn.
The exclamation mark is behind the triangle, so you could select it by double-clicking and tunnelling down through the stack of objects to reach it. However, another way of getting to a buried object is to send the objects covering it to the back of the stack:
Now the exclamation mark is always at the front; you don't need to double-click repeatedly each time you want to select it.
You can change the stacking order of objects using this method (e.g. you could bring the circle to the front of the stack by selecting it and choosing Select/Front).
Once you've selected an object, you can drag it anywhere within the Draw window. For example:
Having practised selecting objects, there is nothing else you need to do with this file, so you can close it by clicking on its Close icon. If during your experimenting, you have changed the file at all, you'll see a message warning you of this; click on Discard to tell the computer you don't want to save your changes.
Six different symbols are used on the map; two types of tree, a picnic site, a mountain, an historic building and a parking site symbol:
The first part of this tutorial takes you through creating these symbols.
The first step in creating the map is to click on the Draw icon on the icon bar (if you don't have Draw loaded on the icon bar see page 193). This displays an empty
Draw window. You should now check that the drawing area is A4, landscape:
The Draw window that is displayed is quite small. Increase the size of this window:
To superimpose a grid within the window:
The easiest way to create most of the map symbols is to draw them large and then shrink them down to the size you want. When you have finished creating all the map symbols your Draw window will look something like this:
There are five steps involved in creating the hall symbol:
Choose the Select tool at the bottom of the toolbox. Select all the objects in the hall symbol (by dragging a select box around them), press Menu and choose Select/Group:
If you now click outside the new bounding box, it will disappear. To select the symbol again just click on it.
The picnic site symbol is much easier to create than it looks:
The mountain symbol is just a solid triangle and is very simple to create.
This tool allows you to create straight lines with the added feature that, when you double-click to end your path, an extra line is drawn to join the last point to the first point.
Before you draw your next symbol it is important that you understand how the Style menu works. Every time you choose a style, e.g. Fill colour, it stays in force until you change it again, and it affects other tools. So if you set Fill colour to black, any subsequent rectangles, lines and curves you draw will also be filled in black. To avoid drawing an object in the wrong style, each time you choose a new tool check that you have the correct fill colour, line width etc. before you draw the new object.
The deciduous tree symbol requires a little more time and 'artistry' to create. Draw this symbol below the other symbols. All your symbols will then be in full view without the need to scroll.
You'll notice that there is a small blue square over the point where you first clicked Select, and as you move the pointer a small orange square will also appear. The blue squares are simply to show you where you clicked Select as you build up a curve. The orange squares are control points; they help to show you how the curve is being generated (there's more on this in Editing curves on page 243). Both types of square will disappear when you finish your curve. For the time being, just build up your curve clicking Select at roughly the points shown below:
When you come to the end of the curve double-click (and leave your pointer where it is). Don't worry if your curve isn't exactly the same as the one above.
If you are dissatisfied with your curves you can either delete them and start again, or edit them. You can delete a curve (or any object) by selecting it and choosing Select/Delete. If you want to learn how to edit curves see page 243.
There are five steps involved in creating the car parking symbol:
P. Now go into the Style/Font size box and click Adjust on 14pt. The size of the
Pwill increase to 14 points. Now move to the Font name submenu and choose Homerton/ Bold. The
Pwill be changed into the new font.
Pis still selected go into the Style/Text colour box and change the colour of the
Pto a light grey. Then drag the
Pso that it is centred inside the rectangle. Now go back into the Text colour box and change the colour of the
Note: Never leave text colour set to white, or you won't see anything next time you type in any text. Always change it to black again. To do this, choose the Text tool, then click Menu and set the Style/Text colour to black (don't forget to click on OK).
Now reduce the size of the first five symbols to the correct size for the map:
Notice that both selected objects move as you drag one of them. Deselect them, drag each one separately into the bottom lefthand corner, then select them both again.
0.2and press Return. The two symbols will be reduced in size.
0.15, and move it near the two already reduced.
0.1, and move them near the three already reduced.
Now is a good time to save the work you've done so far. To do this:
DrawFileand type in a new filename, for example
The next task before actually drawing the map is to construct the map compass.
The compass is made up of four quadrants, but you only need to create one.
The next step is to make three copies of this quadrant and rotate them to form the four quadrants of the compass.
The four quadrants overlap each other at the moment and will be difficult to join accurately:
The next step is to add the text indicating north, south, east and west.
Ethen move the pointer again and add the
When you finish drawing the compass drag a select box around it
and group it. Then press Menu and Transform/Magnify
the compass by
0.5. Finally drag it to the top right
corner of the Draw window:
Now is a good time to save your drawing.
The easiest way to do this is to use a shortcut - press the F3
button at the top left of the keyboard. This displays the Save
as box. You've already saved your work in a file called
Map1, so just click on OK and the work you've done
since you last saved your file will be saved.
Note: It's a good idea to save your work every 10 minutes or so.
The next stage is to draw the map itself. When you have finished the map your Draw window will look something like this:
The sequence in which you'll build up the various parts of the map is:
Choose the Curved line tool and set the Style/Fill colour to None. Move the pointer above the Hall symbol and create the following curve (don't forget to double-click at the end of the curve):
Once you've created the curve, copy it and drag the copy so that it is just below the original curve. The second curve should be parallel to the first curve to give the appearance of a road. Select both lines (hint: drag a select box that passes through both lines) and group them.
Note: If you accidentally select one of the symbols immediately beneath the two lines, you can deselect it by clicking Adjust on it.
To add the circle to the road,
first choose the Ellipse tool. Then turn
Grid/Show and Grid/lock on, click
on any grid marker, and drag the pointer in any direction until
a small circle is displayed. Click again to finish the circle.
Then turn the Grid off again. Select the circle and magnify it
0.5. Then go into the Style/Fill colour
box and fill the circle with white. Now drag the circle so that
it sits on the road as shown below:
The road to Burfell can be drawn as one thick line. Choose the Curved line tool and set the Style/Fill colour to None. Set the Style/Line width to 1. Move the pointer to the upper line in the main road and draw a road going upwards almost to the top of the window (see the picture overleaf).
The river can be drawn using a thinner line. Set the Style/Line width to 0.5, then go into the Style/Line colour box and choose light blue (the patch at the bottom right of the box). Now move to the left of the window and draw the river.
Choose the Joined curve tool. Now draw the outline of the lake. (Remember that the Joined curve tool will join your last point and starting point when you double-click. Notice also that the line is drawn in blue, because you selected a blue line colour to draw the river.) Select the lake and fill it with light blue.
Drag the Hall symbol near the bottom left of the river, and then drag the picnic site symbol to the right of the lake. Your Draw window should now look like this:
The path is made up of a number of filled circles. Select and
copy the circle on the main road, then magnify the copied circle
0.5. Go into Style/Fill colour and
change the colour of the new circle to light grey.
Now drag the new circle to the right of the Hall symbol. Then repeatedly copy the circle and drag the copies to form the entire path (see the picture overleaf). If you drag the wrong object, don't forget you can press F8 to undo a mistake!
Make one more copy of the circle and drag it below the picnic site symbol (this will become the symbol for Brooks farm) then click Adjust on each circle in the path and group them all. (If you accidentally click Adjust on an object you don't want to group, click Adjust on the same symbol to deselect it and continue.)
Finally, magnify the circle below the picnic site by 1.2 and fill it with dark grey.
Now is a good time to save your work again.
Drag the mountain symbol near the top lefthand corner of the Draw window.
Drag the parking symbol below and to the left of where the road to Burfell first passes through the path.
Your map should now look something like this:
Creating the conifer wood is very simple. Drag the conifer symbol near to the Hall symbol and copy and drag it until you have created a wooded area similar to the one on page 216.
Creating the deciduous woods is just the same. Drag and copy the symbol to each of the three deciduous woods shown on page 216.
0at one end of the scale, and
1 mileat the other.
to Burfell R. Ley Garside Fell Hardley to Swafford 417 Brooks Farm
Hardley to Swafford
to Burfellto Trinity/Medium.Italic. Then change
R. Leyto Trinity/Medium.
R. Leyso that it is parallel to the direction of the river:
Garside Fellin the same way. Your map should now look like this:
Now is a good time to save your work again.
Now to add a written description of the walk immediately above your map...
Drag the scroll bar on the righthand side of the Draw window up as far as you can, then choose the Text tool. Set the font to Trinity Medium.Italic at 20pt.
Click at the top left of the window and type in:
A circular walk around Hardley lake
You can include the contents of a text file into a text
area in a Draw file. A text area is a special object which
accepts text from another file. An Edit file called
has been included in the
which contains a description of the walk around Hardley lake.
The first few lines of this file contain commands which specify
the font, paragraph spacing and so on.
For a full description of text areas, and the special commands that you can include in a text editor to describe how to format the text, see Text areas on page 250.
Tutorials.DrawTutordirectory and you'll find an Edit file called
MapText. Drag this file onto your Draw window. When you release Select some text will be displayed:
The text that is displayed is only part of the text contained in the Edit file. To display the entire contents of the file:
Now to import a photograph of the lake, which has been scanned into a sprite file:
Tutorials.DrawTutordirectory and drag the sprite file called
LakeViewonto the Draw window.
View from the Picnic siteat 16pt:
The final part of the map is the Information box.
GOING. Click down one grid unit and type in
TIME, then click another grid unit down and type in
LENGTH. Now click to the right of
GOINGand type in
Wet, and then type in
6 milesone grid unit down and two grid units down from
** Feature **in the centre of the bottom box.
Horses you mightthen press Return and type
see in the wood. Now choose the Select tool and drag the two lines you have just typed in to centre them inside the box:
Scroll the Draw window down. Then drag the sprite file called
Horse from the
to a spot just above the word 'Farm' in 'Brooks Farm'. To start
with, the horse is displayed far too large, so select and magnify
it by 0.4. Now scroll back up and drag it so that it's centred
inside the righthand side of the box:
Your map is now finished. If you want to display the entire map in your Draw window, press Menu and set the zoom factor to 1:2 in the Zoom/Magnifier box.
The entire map will then be displayed (at half its original size) in the Draw window:
Save your map if you want to, and compare it with the file
Map in the
If you have a printer connected you can print your finished map by pressing the Print button on your keyboard; it may take a while to print due to the size of the picture files included. If it doesn't quite fit on your printer's paper, try grouping all the objects in the file and magnifying them (e.g. by 0.9). For more details about printing Draw files see page 249.